The beautiful city of Cusco, is currently recognized by a splendid past, in addition to the importance given to the development of the diverse cultures that developed in this region, so it is not only known as the historical capital of Peru, but, also holds other awards such as Archaeological Capital of America, World Cultural Heritage, among others, which gives it a very special place in the history not only of Peru but also of the World.
The origins of the current city of Cusco, dates back to 2000 a.c. This is the time when the Marcavalle culture is based, a culture characterized by its incipient agricultural work, as well as the first formative traits in ceramics, after the agrarian stage in the village began, when the economy of the collection is replaced by the agrarian economy and the Chanapata culture is born, which is based in the valleys and places near the cultivation areas.
Later between the years 500 a.c to 500 d.c. The cultures of Paqallamoqo and Waru begin to develop, until the rise of the Wari culture, whose organization is based on the first conquering state at the service of a political-military caste that begins to exercise dominion over the Andes, conquering most of the southern societies, what the Wari, Lucre and Killke cultures become the ancestors of the Inca culture.
Then comes the Inca Culture, and on its foundation there are two legends, the first refers to the legend of Manco Capac, whose character left Lake Titicaca in the company of his wife Mama Ocllo and that by mandate of his father "The Sun God "They made a long journey in a northeasterly direction with a gold bar, whose gold bar was sunk in the Huanacaure hill where, in compliance with his father, they founded the city of Cusco; the second legend tells the story of the Ayar brothers, Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Auca and Ayar Uchú, who left the entrails of the Tamputoco hill, each with their respective women, and who during the course of their journey to the land promised several tragedies among them fratricides, being at the end as the only survivor Ayar Manco whose wife was also curiously called Mama Ocllo, who founded the city of Cusco, the same that over the years would have become the center and capital of the Tahuantinsuyo empire.
Regardless of the true history of the founding of the city of Cusco, it is clear that the Incas managed to materialize one of the most acclaimed political-social organizations in history, not only of pre-Columbian America, but also of humanity, extending its territory to all of what is now Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, even reaching a large part of Colombia, Chile and Argentina with an estimated population of 14 to 30 million inhabitants and always connecting all places with a network of roads like the Capacñan, what turned it into a very communicated population.
The first basic unit of the Inca empire was the Ayllu, later after the great integration of the four regions or theirs, so the empire became "Tahuantinsuyo" which translated from Quechua means "Four of its own", the rules of coexistence were simple and clear "Ama llulla", "Ama Kella" and "Ama Sua", which in Spanish means "Do not be a liar", "do not be lazy" and "do not be a thief"; On the other hand, the Inca technology excelled greatly in terms of architecture and hydraulics, from which agriculture and animal husbandry derive, the irrigation channels of Pisac, Ollantaytambo and Anta are a matter of admiration, and above all, study by modern scientists. Archaeological remains of Cusco also appear as great monuments of universal history, of them the most outstanding is Machu Picchu, considered one of the 7 modern wonders of the world.
Then in 1533 the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro arrived in Cusco, and on March 23, 1534, Pizarro founded the Spanish city on the already founded Inca city of Cusco, under the title of Great City, so that during the viceroyalty it was a question of consolidating In Cusco the Spanish domain, not fully completing this task, for this reason is that Cusco is one of the rarest cases in America and probably the world as the nucleus of a process of acculturation not completed by the clash of two different cultures, showing the survival of both cultures and the emergence of own forms of cultural expression very different from the constitutive ones.
For the period of Peruvian independence, Cusco contributed with great precursors such as the rebellion in 1779 of José Gabriel Condorcanqui, also known as Túpac Amaru II, who rose up against the abuse of the Spanish authorities; In 1814 the rebellion on the part of Mateo Pumacahua, these two movements are the most significant due to the great extent they had, however history also tells of other emancipators such as Aguilar and Ubalde in 1805 and that of the Angulo brothers in 1813.
In 1908 the Cusco is communicated thanks to the arrival of the railroad, until then incommunicado with respect to the centers of the coast, in 1911 Machupicchu is discovered, attracting the scientific interest on the pre-existing cultures in this region, in 1821, year of the Independence Enrique Rolandi makes the first direct flight between Cusco and Lima.
In 1933, by Law 7688, the Declaration of the XV Congress of Americanists is given the force of law by which the city of Cusco is recognized as the Archeological Capital of South America and, in 1978, the Meeting of Mayors of Milan declared to Cusco as "World Cultural Heritage".
Due to all these events, Cusco has a rich past and for that reason in 1970 the composers and musicians of Cuzco Luis Nieto Miranda and Roberto Ojeda Campana write the anthem to Cusco, whose lyrics are as follows:
Cusco, Cusco is your sacred name
like the sun of the immortal inkario
everyone takes you in the chest
as a song and triumphal flag.
Invincible bastion of
your race,the peoples
stand by you;and the homeland
that is honored in your lineageHe places a laurel on his forehead.
Eternal Cusco, your golden
relics Goldsmiths of the Sun
worked.Your exploits carved the centuriesand your image the glory sculpted.
- Let the nations stand up
that shoot their star song
and may the world pay tribute
to you Incline your banner
in your honor..
A beautiful tour of the city, especially the historic center of Cusco, gives us the opportunity to see buildings built on walls of ancient palaces and temples of the Inca Empire, this fusion of architectural styles makes Cusco a unique place around the world , architectural gems await you, do not wait any longer come and enjoy the best tours throughout Peru with the travel agency Machu Picchu Travel.
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