To arrive by land to Manu National Park, is necessary since Qosqo and further stated that the route passes through Huancarane, Paucartambo, Patria, Pilcopata, Watchtower and Salvation where the Park Administration Offices and continue to Burgos finally Shintuya. From Atalaya Shintuya or be rented boats with outboard motors for a ride all day and ride down the Alto Madre de Dios river through human settlements Ithahuania, Cruz de Mayo, Puerto Definitive Diamond and until arrive at Boca Manu is point of union or confluence of the Manu River and the Alto Madre de Dios, from here starts the journey upstream along the river to go into the Manu Park. By air (in small planes), it can reach the airstrip of Boca Manu from airports or Qosqo Puerto Maldonado.
If you want to visit the Manu, will be required information and authorization provided by the National Park Administration based in the city of Qosqo at least three months in advance. It is obvious that the authorities have prepared a manual for the visitors with relevant recommendations, threats, restrictions, etc.., Based on experiences at the Park have been opened for tourism since 1980. Income beyond the limits of the reserve in the river Panagua is permitted only to authorized researchers, official visitors and scientific tourism groups that have applied for at least 6 months in advance. Today, there is a hostel for tourists in the area of the Cocha Juarez, in other infrastructure areas, there is no accommodation or food for tourists, so visitors should have the elements needed for subsistence plus transportation and communication (to be be camping), the core staff team is similar to that given in this book to carry out the Inka Trail to Machu Picchu, but the appropriate information on the use of equipment and components will be provided by your travel agent. As in the whole region, the best season to visit the park is during our dry season, between May to September, the rainy season from October to April the greatest amount of rainfall and temperature in the forest.
The National Park and Biosphere Reserve Manu are east of the eastern chain of the Peruvian Andes, including the Manu River Basin as a whole and the part of the Rio Alto Madre de Dios. The landscapes are involved and are different from the 365 meters. (1200 ft.) Tall at Boca Manu, with Amazonian plains; to 4020 mts. (13,200 ft). Waske on the hill, with steep mountains and rugged, the difference in height, identifying a range of climates from the hot and humid Amazon jungle to the cold, dry Andean heights. The average temperature varies with altitude, and the bottom is about 24 Âº C. (75 Âº F.) and the upper parts of about 4 Â° C. (39 Âº F.), just as the annual rainfall in the rain forest exceed 4000 mm. (156 inches) while in the Andean paramo descend to 1000 mm. (39 inches). The hydrographic system is constituted by the rivers that descend from the Andes mountain streams in the early calm in the Amazonian plain, its flow varies considerably between the dry season and rainy season. Manu is reddish and its meanders to the channel change thereafter formed over time the many "cars" or gaps that are the main wildlife environments.
The scientific SHOW Manu is based on the great diversity of flora and fauna is one of the largest in the world and remains almost unchanged in the million years of natural evolution. The highest point of the research park is the biological Cocha Cashu which has the best environmental baseline data throughout the tropics of South America, the station was built in 1969 by teachers and students of the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina in agreement with the Zoological Society Frankfurt. Many studies have been conducted at the station that receives annually between 20 and 30 scientists from around the world, but the work is negligible compared to the possibilities offered by the Park.
The variation in height found in the park allows the existence of an impressive diversity of species and forms of plants, estimated that at least 10% of plant species found in Manu are unknown to science. Here you can find basically three ecological levels: Low Selva, Selva Alta High. In the lowland rainforest is lush green vegetation, giant trees that reach up to 60 mts. in height and 3 meters. in diameter, with crowns from hanging vines and climbing plants that make the floor is relatively dim in daylight, among other tree species here are cedar, mahogany, lupuna, screw, Renaissance, cetico, palms, platanillos etc. In the Jungle High forests have smaller trees with twisted trunks but with more dense vegetation and with an extraordinary diversity of species, the fogs and rains favor the existence of abundant lichens, mosses and ferns and a large selection of beautiful orchids. High levels are also sparse forests based on species such as the classic "queuÃ±a" as well as clumps of thick reeds and dwarf "ichu" the inevitable Andean grass. Among the main species of flora Park are:
Cetico (Cecropia spp.) Renaissance (Ficus paraensis) ojña (Ficus insipida); queuña (Polylepis incana); Shihuahuaco (Dipterix alata); ipururo (Alchornes sp.), Cedar (Cedrela odorata), require (Guarea macrophylla) Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), uchumullaca (Trichilia septentrionalis); lupuna (Ceiba pentandra), sapote (Quararibea cordata); yumanaza (Muntingia calabura), cocoa (Theobroma cacao); capirona (Callycophyllum spruceanum) bobo bird (Tessaria integrifolia); lagarto caspi (Calophyllum brasiliense), etc.
Grasses such as carricillo (Chusquea sp.) CaÃ±abrava (Gynerium sagittatum) ichu (Stipa ichu); as huicungo palm (Astrocaryum murumuru) pijuayo (Bactris gassipaes), pona (Iriartea ventricosa), ungurave (Jessenia bataua) aguaje (Mauritia vinifera), shapaja (Scheelea weberbaueri); musÃ¡ceas as Platanillo (Heliconia spp.) and so on.
Within the three levels of the ecological park you can find the greatest diversity of wildlife in the world as a whole are a valuable pool of species, many of which are still relatively unknown. Many of the investigations are still concentrated in the Biological Station of Cocha Cashu whose surroundings have been more than 550 species of birds, estimated at more than 1,000 the total number of species throughout the Park. Worldwide known species do not exceed 9000, they are in Peru 1800, reaching a world record, well, Manu is home to one in nine species of birds, an exuberance unmatched by any other park in the land. There were also 200 species of mammals, among which highlights the primates of which there are about 13 species, on the other hand, there are about 100 species of bats. Here you can still easily find endangered animals like the black alligator and otter, while the fish are abundant in the rivers of the park, like the insects and invertebrates of the estimated there must be more than one million species, research on wildlife in the region are still very limited and insufficient. Among the main species of fauna of the Park are:
Some primates musmuqui or the night monkey (Aotus nigriceps), stump (Callicebus moloch), cotomono or howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus), white Machín (Cebus albifrons), monk (Saimiri sciureus), woolly (Lagothrix lagotricha) Leoncito (Cebuela pygmaea), PICHICO (Saguinus fuscicollis) PICHICO Emperor (Saguinus imperator), black spider monkey or spider monkey (Ateles paniscus). Hormigueros as Serafín (Cyclopes dydactilus) Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), lazy as the lazy three fingers (Bradypus variegatus), lazy two fingers (Choloepus hoffmanni); carachupa as armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus ) and carachupa maman (Priodontes maximus); raposas as Pericot (Philander opossum), MUCA (Micoureus cinereus) and Raposo (Marmosops noctivagus), which is a leporidÃ¡ceo rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), red squirrels and rodents ( Sciurus spadiceus), porcupine (Coendu bicolor) Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris); Majaz or paca (Agouti paca), Anuj (Dasyprocta variegata), Anuj lower (Myoprocta Pratti); pacarana or machatero (Dinomys branickii); vizcacha (Lagidium peruanum ), coati (Nasua Nasua) chosna (Potos flavus), mustelids such as ferrets or lobito river (Eira barbara), otters (Lutra incarum) otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), cats such as ocelot (Felis pardalis) puma (Felis concolor), yaguarundi (Felis yagouaroundi), or Otorongo jaguar (Panthera onca). Furthermore is the tapir (Tapirus terrestris), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), red deer and deer (Mazama americana), ash deer (Mazama gouazoubira) taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), and so on.
Panguana small (Crypturellus undulatus), pisacca (Nothoprocta ornata), large partridge (Tinamus major), either shared or duck snake (Anhinga anhinga), large white heron (Casmerodius alba), heron tumuy-tumuy (Phiherodias pileatus), pumagarza (Tigrisoma lineatum ), crushed (Mycteria americana), jabiru (mycteria Jabiru), roseate spoonbills (Ajaia Ajaia); CAMUNGO (Anhima cornuta); Ganzo Ganzo Orinoco jungle or (Neochen jubata), pato criollo (Cairina moschata); jungle condor (Sarcoramphus potato), head black vultures (Coragyps atratus); road hawk (Buteo magnirostris), harpy eagle (Harpy harpyja), golden eagle (Spizaetus ornatus), crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis); chiguango Caracara black or black (Daptrius ater) murcielaguero falcon (Falco rufigularis); pukakunga (Penelope jacquacu) Paujil (Crax mitu); shansho (Opisthocomus Hoatzin) Trumpeter (Psophia leucoptera); Tuqui-Tuqui (Jacana Jacana); tern large peak (Phaetusa simplex) tern yellow beak (Sterna superciliaris) rayador (Rynchops nigra), blue-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) flag macaw (Ara macao), maracana (Ara severa), pihuicho (Brotogeris sanctithomae) chunkuchui (Pionus menstruus) aurora front yellow (Amazona achrocephala) Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata), large kingfisher (Chloroceryle rider); lineado woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus), or pinsha toucan (Ramphastos cuvieri), cardinal (Paroaria gularis); Paucar boy (Cacicus cela); cock of rocks (Rupicola peruviana, etc.).
Taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis) Motels (Geochelone denticulata) white alligator (Caiman crocodylus), black alligator (Melanosuchus niger), yellow boa (Boa constrictor), jargon (Bothrops atrox), shushupe (Lachesis muta), etc.
Raya (Potamotrygon hystrix), eel (Electrophorus electricus); carachama (Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus), catfish (Sorubin spp.) ZÃºngaro (Pseudoprimelodus spp.) Boquichico (Prochilodus magdalenae) piranha (Serrasalmus spp.) And so on.
In the rivers Manu and Alto Madre de Dios are native groups settled possibly for millennia, its residents enjoy freedom of movement and freedom to practice activities such as hunting, fishing, gathering and farming, they are part of the natural balance of the park and are always allowed to time their activities do not represent a danger to the natural balance. These groups are native to Machiguenga, or the Yora Yaminahua the Mashco-Piros and Amahuaca today, the park authorities have made contact only with the Machiguenga and Yoras. The composition of these settlements usually still have a very peculiar way of life with life of ancient beliefs and customs, living in wooden houses with roofs of palm leaves, cotton weaving, pottery making, farm products such as cassava, uncucha, corn, papaya, pineapple, banana, etc..; hunted with spears, bow and arrows, blowguns and stone axes. Today some of these people live a gradual process of Westernization as a result of its approach to modern society, education and influence of communications.
Moreover, the tradition has created the myth of the famous "Paititi" (a "lost Inca city") in the Amazon forest, which many argue would be in the park. That city would agree to the myth, the place where the latest Quechuas emperors sent their treasures to be protected from destruction Spanish, however, no evidence of this. But, on the eastern flank of the Andes to the Park which are cultural remnants of past civilizations on which there are no serious studies, including highlighting the "Petroglyphs Pusharo" in the area of low Palotoa. In Inka times in accordance with the policy of territorial expansion was discovered the Madre de Dios, who was called "Amarumayo" (river snake-dragon), then in the colony were interned many expeditions in the region due to fever gold. In the early years of this century some religious missions were established and the whole area was extensively explored and exploited for the extraction of latex rubber which is found in significant amounts mainly in the lower Manu, and the movement of workers in the region identified Foundation of Puerto Maldonado in 1902 and subsequently the creation of the department of Madre de Dios in 1912. During the following decades after the failure of the rubber industry in Peru and Brazil, many hunters entered the area in search of animal skins fairly traded in the international market, with emphasis on the hunting of jaguar, ocelot, wolves and river black lizard. From the 60s began the exploitation of precious wood such as cedar and mahogany, very prosperous quarrying activity which led to the construction of a landing field in Boca Manu