Natural protected area of Peru that is located in the department of Madre de Dios, province of Tambopata and Inambari. This reserve was created on September 4, 2000, has an extension of 274,690. This natural area has an average altitudinal gradient of 300 masl in a range of 200-400 m.s. Within the objectives of creation of the reserve, 3 main axes of execution were established: to protect the flora, fauna and ecological processes of a sample from the southern Amazon jungle of Peru. Second, also generate conservation processes with the population in the reserve area, the main purpose is to sustainably use resources such as chestnuts and the landscape for recreation, and third, the contribution to the sustainable development of the entire region and the country, from the knowledge of the biological diversities of the management of the multiple renewable natural resources.
The climate of the reserve is of humid or very humid subtropical forest type, where the average temperature is 26 ° C, varying from 10 ° C and 38 ° C. the low temperatures are caused by the Antarctic winds that irregularly enter the Amazon basin from the Andes commonly in the cold wind seasons in the months of June and July. Similarly, maximum temperatures are recorded during the months of September and October.
The rainfall in this area is in the range of 1600 to 2400 mm per year. These precipitations vary according to the seasons. Where the highest rainfall is in the range of the months from December to March, to this period of high rainfall we have the transition months that are October, November, April and May; and finally, the months of June to September, which are seasons of low rainfall.
Its main basins are the Tambopata and Health rivers, in this reserve we can also find the Azul and Malinowsquillo rivers, which flow into the right bank of the Malinowski river.
The Tambopata river, which is born in the Bolivian Peruvian high plateau, has an extension of 402 km and the main tributary is Malinowski. This river crosses the tambopata national reserve from east to west, thus being one of the main accesses to the attractions of this reserve.
The Tambopata River has one of the highest indices of biological diversity in the world, which the Tambopata reserve is located in the middle and lower zone of this basin, next to the city of Puerto Maldonado, within its ecosystems The most common are the aguajales, swamps, pacales and also the rivereños forests, the physical characteristics which allow the local inhabitants the use of natural resources. This reserve hosts aquatic habitats which is used as the whereabouts of more than 40 species of migratory birds. It is the tambopata reserve that protects all species mainly those considered in danger of extinction, thus offering visitors a privileged destination for observing the diversity of flora and fauna.
Reported about 632 species of birds, 1200 of butterflies, 103 of amphibians, 180 of fish, 169 of mammals and 103 of reptiles. It is inside the reserve offers healthy habitats for the recovery and refuge of the populations of species that are threatened as the river wolf, the otter and felines such as the jaguarundi; the puma, jaguar, the ocelot or tigrillo and the margay.
Also among the primate species are the maquisapa, the pichico, the emperor pichico, the monkey boar, the black-headed monkey, the woolly monkey, the friar, the squirrel monkey, the white machin and the black machin.
Other species of mammals that stand out among the wild fauna are the sachavaca, the huangana, the sajino, the red deer, the gray deer, and the sloths of two fingers and three-toed sloths. As for the birds, the most outstanding for its presence in the harpy eagle, the crested eagle, the common paujil, the unicorn paujil and the carunculado paujil. The Tambopata Reserve welcomes almost all species of macaws, inhabitants throughout Peru.
Another common species is the reptiles: emerald boa, the parrot machaco, the boa constrictor, and the shushupe, similarly in common to observe the black alligator, white alligator and taricaya.
Among the fish there is also a great variety among which the boquichico, the bulrush zungaro, the yahuarachi, the dorado and the paco stand out; likewise among the non-commercial fish are the shad, the mullet and the catfish.
In the plains of sedimentation you can see the aguajales, as well as machas species that have commercial value such as mahogany, screw, cedar, lupuna, shiringa, rubber and the chestnut of these species must be noted that it is a non-timber forest resource with greater economic potential which is developed in the Tambopata National Reserve, which is used under management plans approved and controlled by the National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State (SERNANP).
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